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Andrés López Schrader · May 8, 2019 at 1:14 pm

The starter in all cases was a basic theoretical introduction to the subject matter. It was introduced using audiovisual tools with language as a support. In all of the examples students were allowed to produce something, from an annotated map of an automated home to a drawing using colored shapes.This independent work allowed students to discuss their ideas is their native language in a low-stress activity. They were then encouraged to use the vocabulary they had learnt to present their creation to the class.
There is varied use of technology throughout lessons. The older students tended to use the internet to research the subject matter and check understanding through translations.
In some instances the language and knowledge cycle were very distinct parts of the lesson (e.g. shapes and prepositions lesson) and in other classes the situational use of language was integrated with the subject (e.g. formality of telephone calls and planning a meeting) in combinatorial tasks.

Sneha Lala · June 2, 2019 at 8:36 pm

The topic is introduced initially in engaging ways- song and videos can be helpful for this. Then the vocabulary is immediately tested through a game. Through using a game this can make this section more interesting. It can also identify gaps. Then the children are made to show their understanding of the new words in context. They are given questions to put the information in context. They are encouraged to use their own research to learn more. Through considering the topic through debates, maths, science and the environment, the children get an idea of how the words work in different contexts and learn about different topics.
The next lesson works similarly. The video dictation means the children are actively involved and they are learning whilst drawing. Vocabulary learning becomes integrated to the framework of the lesson but the teacher also makes sure there are multiple opportunities to go over the vocabulary to solidify the learning. Through drawing, making art, singing and painting, they apply the vocabulary to many different languages. Testing each other becomes integrated into the work they are doing.
In the different texts, the activities are modulated to the children’s abilities and their age. Practical things like art are used more for younger children and older children are encouraged to do more research based work as well as creative activities.
The children are encouraged to explain how they make things as well as the technical vocabulary to develop a wide vocabulary that is context based. They are encouraged to explain their designs, ask and answer questions and to think of each topic from a range of different views. The practical aspect makes the learning very engaging, especially for younger children.
For young people and college students, the young people are encouraged to identify the vocabulary themselves and provided support, the teacher therefore assists their language learning without patronising them. However, practical activities are still used, the physical aspect of what they are doing and physically seeing and using the components helps with their language learning. The lesson ends with a preview of the next lessons, giving students the option to read up and be prepared for the next session.
In the meeting video, the teacher is aware of the age of the students and therefore begins the vocabulary sessions with suggestions from them. She encourages them to be independent and helps them along when they need it. Nevertheless, it is still practical with role play to put the vocab learning into context. The cultural contexts being taught are very applicable for the age group, the older students learning what is appropriate and inappropriate for phone conversations.
The older students in the final video are encouraged to understand vocabulary themselves and self-define it before working together to strengthen their understanding. Games are still used to make this understanding more practical. Creative projects are used to put the language into contexts.

hespa001 · June 5, 2019 at 10:29 pm

The starter activities made sure to incorporate auditory and visual tools to allow students to engage with the material in different ways. The activities shown were varied but gave students an opportunity to creatively engage with the material in a context that interests them, encouraging them to grasp language in contexts that they would use it in in day to day life. The use of creating something and then presenting it, gives students opportunities to explore using language based around the topic in different ways and allows students with different strengths to excel in different parts of the lesson. The different activities are also useful to repeat and consolidate the vocabulary introduced at the beginning of the lessons in different contexts.

jackmainwaring · June 7, 2019 at 2:49 pm

Each lesson began with a quick introduction to what would be learned, and this was primarily done through audio-visual aids, such as watching a video or a short presentation. This allowed the students to immediately and easily relate to what would be taught during the lesson. In some cases, a short plenary was also given, where the teacher would recap what was learned in the lesson and what would be taught in the following lesson.

There was variety between lessons in the balance between knowledge-based and language-based learning. Some lessons had a large focus on improving subject knowledge, these lessons mainly being with older students that had a good level of language competency. Some lessons focused more on the language-learning aspects, primarily the lessons with the younger students who had a more limited vocabulary.

Despite the wide range of ages between each lesson example, all lessons used games or activities to integrate the subject- and language-based learning. These activities were mainly carried out in pairs or groups, to maximise the amount of student talking to increase the amount of language learning. The different activities were tailored towards the age group of the students to make for more suitable and relevant learning. Each lesson combined a number of different activities to maintain student engagement and to allow the students to solidify their understanding of the new material.

Throughout the lessons, the teacher would ask further questions to prompt additional explanation, and encourage discussions between students on the subject of interest. This allowed for both increased understanding of the subject being taught, and increased language practice within that subject area.

jla2g18 · June 10, 2019 at 12:34 pm

Each lesson began with a starter during which the basic content of the lesson was introduced, by defining the topic or quickly running through the content as a class. Then the vocabulary and content of the lesson was generally covered in a similar way, using games or simple tasks that involved the lesson material.

All lessons, regardless of the level of learning, were student focused. The majority of time was used for students to complete activities without teacher input, such as making art from the shapes that they had learned, building circuits or designing houses using domotics. Collaborative group work was a strong theme throughout the various tasks, and presenting their finished product at the end is a useful revision task. Most tasks are a combination of language and subject specific material, rather than the two areas of CLIL being well defined.

Evie Burrows · June 12, 2019 at 6:29 pm

Although some of the classes are composed of primary school students and some of people at vocational colleges, the structure is similar in both cases. The topic is introduced in an engaging way, often through a video or through getting students to suggest vocabulary related to the topic which they already know. The introduction tends to use input from multiple modalities. Other ways of introducing vocabulary include using physical items which are then used later in the lesson to perform various tasks. Vocabulary is tested through various games.
The language and knowledge cycles are particularly clear in some of the examples but in others they appear to be less distinct. Language is learnt through various specific activities including reading and subsequent tasks. In terms of knowledge, various task-based activities involving research for instance are used. Students often work together and discuss in teams in their L2. They learn about technical topics or learn tasks such as painting. These tasks are both a way of maximising interest and of actually acquiring knowledge.
Games are used in many of the classrooms as a way to learn and consolidate both linguistic and non-linguistic information. Cognition is also focussed on, for example in tasks involving calculating or designing. Students are encouraged to produce something and present it to the class; teacher speaking time is minimised as activities (often with a focus on speaking) take up most of the time. In the last video, culture and knowledge are intertwined as appropriateness of linguistic forms in various situations is discussed.

GeorgiaHarris · June 15, 2019 at 2:58 pm

Each lesson began with an introduction to the topic area, sometimes through a video, but always with some kind of visual aid to help understanding and capture the interest of the students. This introduction was almost always followed by a brief summary of the new vocabulary encountered in the introduction, so that the students could then use it more confidently in independent activities, and engage in the rest of the lesson as the vocab gives them access to the new concepts being introduced. For the classes given in primary schools the vocabulary was often tested in a game type format. The language is then put in to practice through subsequent activities. However, these activities now focused on the topic area being studied rather than the language itself. For example, in the vocational college students had to work out which tools would be necessary for building certain parts of the circuit. This required sufficient technical understanding to choose the right equipment, but required the recall of the technical vocabulary that had been previously introduced. The office administration class had a nice example to cultural awareness or language, looking at polite and inappropriate ways of phrasing questions and answers in a professional context.
All of the lessons had a strong student led focus. The initial introduction at the beginning of the lesson was the only point where students were not actively involved. All of the activities allowed students to put their own knowledge into practice either through independent written work or through group activities.

Patricia-Ioana Sfagau · June 18, 2019 at 4:18 pm

The video presents English lesson based on dofferent levels starting with a child/beginner level and climbing up to adults language classes. The lessons adopt the CLIL as langugage is baded on the content of the subject.
For lower levels the starters ofen are caroon videos which introduce the topic and hook the learner. In order to learn the language different learning and knowledge cycles are used most of them based on games and fun activities such as mind maps, filling in tables, cards, crafting activities, painting. Nevertheless activities are carried out in groups so exclusion is minimized.
When it comes to more advanced classes the lesson content is based on more difficult topics such as electrical circuits and arranging formal meatings. The starter this time is brain storming which replies on the students to come up with their own opinion straight away. What is more the lesson could also start with a quick reasearch on the topic followed by coming up with a suitable definition for it before the teacher goes into more details. As assement students prepare presentations which again do not implies such a big implication of the tracher unlike in a lower level

caisealbeardow · June 19, 2019 at 8:35 pm

In all lessons, the topic is introduced with engaging audiovisual materials at the start of the lesson. This is supported by the introduction of new technical vocabulary. In all cases, students are encouraged to create their own content or materials that employ the new vocabulary in a topic-specific context (for example, an annotated map of a smart home). Discussion of the new topic in the students’ native language is allowed at this point to enable them to familiarise themselves with the topic. After this, students were encouraged to practice using the new topic-specific vocabulary in the form of a class presentation, focusing on communication skills and confidence in spoken language. Some lessons separated knowledge cycles distinctly throughout the main body of the lesson, whereas in other lessons combinatorial tasks were used to teach socially-oriented skills such as language modulation.

ear42 · June 20, 2019 at 4:01 pm

In all lessons there was an introduction, followed by the bulk lesson which often consisted of multiple set tasks. The lessons finished with a summary either presenting work, or a game which relayed the main conceptual idea(s) of the lesson.
Subject specific vocabulary was introduced at the beginning of the lesson through games, word/picture association and visual aids. Mind maps were made and words categorised to aid with understanding. In the case with younger children the tasks were simple and offered a break from learning vocabulary, so reducing cognitive load and keeping the lesson enjoyable – for example in the art lesson, when making the art pieces and in the lesson with the eggs, making the structures to protect the eggs. With the older students appropriate language was taught – looking at how to phase questions and greet people politely.
The teachers all spoke slowly, clearly and emphasised/repeated key words. The subject content was age appropriate in each case. All lessons involved pair work or group work where one student would ask questions and the other answer. In some cases the students had worksheets which they had filled out to refer back to in order to reduce cognitive load. Overall the lessons were heavily student focused. In all cases the teacher played a facilitating role, constantly asking the class questions and or going round the groups to aid with the conceptual side of the learning.

Emma Walsh · June 21, 2019 at 2:04 pm

The CLIL principals of language used to learn as well as for communication, and the subject matter determining the language taught are implemented through specific subject lessons. In an attempt to reduce the cognitive load, the teachers try to ensure that key vocabulary is grasped by students before moving on to more complex subject-specific tasks at a deeper conceptualise level. Lessons tend to begin with an introduction to key vocabulary in a fun way using audio-visual tools. Then the lessons have many different tasks to keep students interested and practising different skills. Often there is an interactive vocabulary exercise, for example matching images with specific vocabulary. Then there are more complex tasks, such as classifying vocabulary and understanding the vocabulary at a deeper level in context specific to the subject being taught and/or once this vocabulary is properly understood, tasks are more focused on specific subject content. There is a mixture of group tasks and individual work. These activities are often interactive and encourage students to think and engage, rather than a lecture from the teacher. The lesson is then concluded with consolidation, often through a game, song, etc. These techniques maximise opportunities for students to develop both their language and subject-specific skills.

ajohnston · June 22, 2019 at 7:36 am

Each lesson began with a hook such as a video or picture to introduce a specific topic for the lesson. Next, key vocabulary was identified which helps to ensure that all children are aware of what they are learning and helps to reduce cognitive load. The lessons all have fun and hands on approaches to the topic so that children can demonstrate their understanding in a practical approach. Often, these tasks require a deeper understanding of the subject being taught. Most of children’s time spent in the classroom was on an activity and the teacher did not spend much time talking to the class. The end of the lesson was based on consolidating what the children have learnt in the lesson.

Lizzie Avery · June 23, 2019 at 1:18 pm

The CLIL principles (learning the content of a subject in another language) are implemented in these lessons by following the structure of CLIL classes. In both the primary schools and vocational colleges, a short introduction to the topic was used to begin class. In the primary schools, this was usually a video (which was both visual and audial) which introduced the topic in a fun and engaging way. With the older students in the vocational colleges, the introduction was usually very brief and lecture-style, given by the teacher. The necessary vocabulary for the topic was then introduced. In the primary schools, the teacher usually taught them the necessary words before they completed various activities to consolidate their understanding of them (for example, matching words and pictures in the first lesson). Whereas, in the vocational colleges, students were required to come up with the necessary vocabulary themselves (whether searching on the web, answering teachers’ questions based on the necessary vocab (or identifying it in pairs) or completing a brainstorm as a class on the required vocabulary, overseen by the teacher. In all these example lessons, the knowledge cycle was implemented through hands on tasks and activities, usually experiments in the more scientific lessons. Further, all students were asked to describe what they were doing during these tasks and present what they had done at the end of the class activities. This was the main example of combinatorial tasks used across all lessons. The classes were then concluded appropriately. The first lesson is a particularly good example, whereby a fun game was used to test the students’ understanding of saving energy.

Leandra Thomson · June 24, 2019 at 3:18 am

At the start of each lesson, the topic was introduced in an engaging way in order to give students some background information and gain their attention. This starter was adapted to each class’ lesson and was presented through the use of videos, songs, and other visuals. After this, classes began their language cycle which often consisted of either presenting new vocabulary words or learning new information about a given topic. The teachers did this through the use of interactive games and activities. The knowledge cycle was then incorporated into the lessons through the use of various activities. Through the knowledge cycle and combinatorial tasks, students were given the opportunity to work independently and with peers to help improve their understanding. To conclude, the classes finished with a plenary. This ensured the students had an understanding of the main focuses of the lesson as well as helped the teacher to recognize where the students were at with the new information.

RebeccaRM · June 24, 2019 at 3:28 pm

All the lessons started with a short introduction, often using videos or some sort of visual aid to help understanding. Then there was a language-based section for vocabulary, again with visual aids. The children were tested afterwards with fun activities to make sure they understood. The main activity of the lesson required contextual use of the language they had learnt at the beginning, by having to produce something such as a painting or a presentation. The activities were done in groups to maintain engagement and minimise teacher talk time, and the students had to describe what they were doing to make sure they could appropriately use the vocabulary. While all groups were able to work independently, the older groups were given more freedom on the internet to expand their knowledge and improve their presentations. The teachers finished with a plenary to make sure the students knew what new information had been presented, in a younger class a game was used while an older class had the teacher summarise.

Ross Moncrieff · June 24, 2019 at 5:06 pm

The videos all started with an introductory section which used visual aids (including videos) to engage the students and help them understand the topic. The lessons then moved onto providing the students with the vocabulary they would need for the lesson, also with use of visual aids (often pictures). The main body of the lesson was then allowing the students to implement their learning, often grouping together to produce something creative. At the end of the lesson there would be a consolidation period, including fun activities like singing a song.

jsm89 · June 25, 2019 at 12:51 pm

The clips all show CLIL being implemented across a range of ages and abilities, but all start with a brief and simple introduction to the topic, followed by an activity (often done in groups), with a summary at the end. Lots of visual stimuli and gestures are used throughout, with the later lessons increasingly relying on a basic knowledge of English in order to complete the tasks. Clear cycles were often used, for example in the office admin video some keywords were introduced in a class discussion, followed by group activity, with feedback often in the form of a presentation or demonstration of the skills they have learned in this section.

Gayatri · June 25, 2019 at 4:58 pm

The structure of the lesson is the same, whether it is aimed at younger children, or used in vocational classes. The complexity of the content is what differs. At the beginning of the lesson, the topic is introduced, and visual aids such as a PowerPoint presentation may be used. This introduction may include an initial brainstorm of what the students may already know.
During the learning phase, there is less emphasis on the teacher talking, which allows learning through interactive methods, such as by using phones or computers for research. Teamwork is key to these lessons, and the students may take part in creative challenges such as drawing, or making objects. At the end of the session, as a consolidation point, the groups may present their work.

juliazlot · June 25, 2019 at 7:12 pm

All of the lessons started with some form of introduction to the topic before moving onto the vocabulary necessary to complete further tasks. Student participation was maximised through things such as brainstorming, to avoid the teachers talking alone for too long. All the lessons then moved onto some tasks related to the topics, which seemed to revolve around group-work and hands-on tasks to keep pupils engaged whilst still learning as much as possible about the topics. The lessons then all finished with a summary of what had been learnt. They were all very contextual and focused around communication.

mifei99 · June 25, 2019 at 9:39 pm

The lesson started with an activity that used audiovisual resources to interest students in the topic and then provide brief background. In many cases (e.g. the domotics lesson at the vocational college) after the starter the lesson focused on teaching the vocabulary that students would need to engage with the content. For younger students, the teacher made this knowledge easily available to the students. Older and more advanced students often learnt this new vocabulary through independent research. Once this vocabulary had been mastered the students then moved on to learning the subject matter whilst continuing to practice their language skills. These later activities ranged from colouring pictures to writing presentations. The advanced students in the office management class seemed to have advanced enough English to go straight to this combined stage without having to explicity learn new vocabulary.

SammyLappage · June 26, 2019 at 1:27 am

The lessons started by introducing the topic of the lesson in an interesting way, for example through a cartoon video, pictures or objects. Key vocabulary was emphasised by the teacher, often involving the students repeating the vocabulary and the teacher writing it down. The lessons involved a practical component in which students could work together to expand their subject knowledge and understanding, for example by researching and calculating energy use, creating their own art work and making circuits. Students practiced their general and subject specific language throughout the lesson by explaining to each other and the teacher what they were doing, for example their design for saving the egg. Many of the lessons involved student problem-solving and their active involvement in discovering how to work out the answer rather than being told what to do, for example with the circuits or modifying their egg design. The lessons ended in interesting ways, for example by using games and songs and summing up the work completed in the lesson. The lessons were tailored to the students level of English and ensured they were adequately challenged and enjoyed the lesson.

Stephen Grech · June 26, 2019 at 12:04 pm

The videos demonstrated teachers following the CLIL method quite closely with all of them beginning with a starter (followed by the main course :p) of some form of a ‘hook’. These ‘hooks’ were either videos, presentations full of pictures, or interaction with relevant objects. This was followed by highlighting the key vocabulary and phrases in the demonstration. The students were then asked to form sentences relevant to the subject through activities and games. The approach varied across the videos between the children and the adults. The children were made to repeat the new words and songs were used to increase interest while the adults were given heavier cognitive loads with activities like giving presentations. This way, all the students’ levels were met allowing for them to learn in the process and to be truly engaged.

louisajc · June 26, 2019 at 1:41 pm

The lessons were typically characterised by a similar format. The lessons typically begin with introducing the topic, often through a warmup activity or a short video. This would be followed by a presentation of the content, for example, learning the names of different shapes. The teacher would highlight the key points from the presentation, and allow the children to try engaging with the content themselves, labelling items or making drawings. Often, the teachers encourage children to describe what they are creating or doing, in order to consolidate their learning. The lessons would often incorporate a practical element, such as games, building and drawing, followed by a short summary of the lesson to conclude. The lessons were largely focused on the students themselves, where the teachers’ talking times were minimised.

Laura Fantuzzi · June 26, 2019 at 6:43 pm

For young students, the approach is always to first present the vocabulary in the context of the subject. This is done with the help of images, videos, physical objects, i.e. a visual support, so the kids associate the object or image with the word. Then, the kids fix that vocabulary with a quick activity that will let them embrace it. Once the vocabulary is understood by the students, the teachers move on to the main part of the lesson, which is the practical activities based on the subject taught. Those activities can involve interactive exercises on a laptop (in the lesson about electricity), testing each other (in the landscape painting lesson), or being creative (in order to protect the egg). The lessons follow an appropriate pace – slow, but steady. The teachers know where they are going and give clear explanations to the students. They let them interact and actually do what they learned about. This allows the kids to learn from each other, from both their mistakes and their good handling of the topic.
For older students, a quick introduction of the vocabulary that will be used is also provided, however, the teacher can let the students themselves throw ideas in a brainstorming session. The students are made to work in pairs, again to learn from each other. When they have been presented the vocabulary, they will have to apply it to the subject they are studying. This is done by an exercise of role playing or a practical exercise, depending on the subject. In the end, the students may have to present the result of their work in a presentation or by explaining what they did.
In both cases, the teachers made sure the students engaged in the subject fully and had some contextualised memory of the lesson. They followed the structure of Starter-Language Cycle-Knowledge Cycle-Combinatorial Tasks proper to CLIL. The lessons were also relevant to the age group of the students.

angolanta · June 26, 2019 at 11:30 pm

The lessons implement the CLIL principles, following its usual structure. They all begin with a starter that works as the introduction and “hook” for the topic. For the young students this is often a video or a small presentation. The older students are urged to research and brainstorm more for themselves. The lessons go on to introduce appropriate vocabulary and language (language cycle). Scaffolding is used, e.g. in the form of thinking maps on the wall for the younger students and T-charts for the older students. Once the language is established, the knowledge cycle begins with a more practical activity or hands-on experiment, such as doing calculations, the circuit building or the egg experiment. In the end of the lesson a combinatorial task might take place, such as a song or quick game summing up the concepts learnt. The lessons finish off by summarising and/or introducing next times topic.

All the lessons put the students in the spotlight giving them room to speak and experiment themselves. Most activities encourage working in teams or pairs and are very interactive.

OliviaDaly · June 27, 2019 at 11:32 am

Lessons all began with the laying out of key vocabulary and the practicing of language skills in relation to the chosen topic before moving onto heavier content. A relaxed atmosphere was cultivated in the classroom so that students were comfortable availing of the large amount of student speaking time made available to them and mistakes were not harshly corrected but tolerated as part of the language learning process. This shows the emphasis on fluency in the CLIL approach put into practice. Visual aids, technology and other interactive learning methods were made use of frequently, and while students did work to analyse texts, it was always done in a fun and engaging way. Appropriate scaffolding and clues were provided in activities, especially relating to more complicated topics such as domotics, so that students did not lose valuable information on content due to limitations in language skills. Lessons appeared to leave plenty of room for creativity and using language socially through group work.

serenalhayes · June 27, 2019 at 2:52 pm

Despite the varying range of age groups, all lessons successfully demonstrated the CLIL principals and characteristics. All lessons were specific to a particular subject or theme of the curriculum. All lessons followed a similar structure of starter (warmer) and hook, a main activitiy and then a plenary, which was a summary of the content learned or a presentation of what was learned as per the learning objective. With primary school children, a variety of combinational tasks were implemented to maintain engagement and a good pace of learning to suit all learning styles, such as matching coloured vocabularly tasks to an appropriate subject-specific word. Meanwhile, older students in vocational college experimented with more hands-on tasks as part of the language cycle, whilst making their own electronic circuits.

Gigi Michie · June 28, 2019 at 6:14 pm

In most cases the teacher first presented the topic of the lesson with an audiovisual introduction, such as a song about electricity, or visual depictions of different landscapes. Generally the pupils put into practice the new information in groups, probably in order to make the lesson less daunting by putting emphasis on verbal communication. After this main activity the teacher might consolidate the technical vocabulary with a testing game; such as the waster/saver quiz in the first class.
In the case of the older pupils the teacher might take into consideration different perspectives and the social context, by getting the pupils to think specifically about the appropriate way to ask questions on the phone, or assigning different criteria to different pupils when describing domotic arrangements. As the CLIL method recommends, with the older pupils at the end of the class they did matching games and word searches in order to consolidate the new technical vocabulary.

SabrinaA · June 29, 2019 at 10:43 pm

The general pattern of the lessons fit CLIL principles through the use of a “starter” for example by showing a video, as well as starting off the lesson by introducing the key vocabulary for the topic to be discussed. While teacher speaking time is limited, the teachers provide adequate scaffolding which provides guidance for the students to follow. The use of activities such as games allowed for increased engagement and consolidation. Different approaches were used for different age groups, allowing the lessons to work effectively for every student.

jonasblack · June 30, 2019 at 6:46 am

Each of the lessons began with an introduction to the topic area with the use of a visual aid to boost understanding and capture the interest of the students. There was then usually a brief summary of the new vocab just covered which helped engagement with the rest of the lesson due to more of an understanding of the new concepts introduced. After the vocabulary had been tested, the follow-up activities generally surrounded the subject matter rather than extensive focus on the language (however recall of the vocabulary just learned was often required for the activity). All of the activities enabled students to put their knowledge into practice and different approaches were adopted for different age groups. All of the lessons had a strong student led focus, however sufficient scaffolding was provided by the teachers.

ioanadiac · June 30, 2019 at 3:58 pm

Nearly all the lessons begin with an audio-visual starter like an animated video or a song which explains the knowledge topic in a fun, informative and easy to understand way. This serves the purpose of not only introducing the key vocabulary that will be needed for the academic topic, but also laying the groundwork for the students’ conceptual understanding of the subject at hand. In another lesson, the starter was followed by a recap vocabulary activity where pictures of items were matched with the correct vocab; an effective way to start a second subject lesson that ensures the students reflect and consolidate what they previously learnt. The lessons followed the structure of a CLIL lesson being ‘starter, language cycle, knowledge cycle, combinatorial tasks then plenary’ as the teacher first covered the main vocab, sentence structures and grammar that would be needed before delving into explaining the academic knowledge aspects of the topic at hand. The lessons also included a task during the main bulk of the lesson focused on implementing the language they have learnt for communication purposes, whether that be working in pairs for role-plays, testing one another on the subject in pairs, or preparing a presentation for the rest of the class. The lesson on business management also implemented the CLIL principle of teaching ‘culture’ since it effectively highlighted what would be considered rude or polite forms of address when writing emails or answering phone calls. Overall, the lessons incorporated the CLIL principals to a large extent due to their use of audiovisual starters, following the structure of teaching the required language before the knowledge aspect of the topic and including the key components of CLIL teaching such as content, cognition, communication and culture.

lun3rzhu · June 30, 2019 at 9:55 pm

The four Cs framework can be observed here, with the principle lesson plan still in place. Firstly, there is the warm-up activity observed (e.g watching a video in the beginning), before moving onto the content phases (e.g. vocabulary matching) and the cool-down phase.

The Content portion is covered principally at the beginning of every lesson with a video/audio introduction, which aims to introduce the student to the objectives of the lesson and cover the basic ground. This is reinforced in the ‘Cognition’ phase, wherein activities such as vocabulary matching helps link key concepts covered together and apply these skills to different activities e.g. matching pictures. The concept of ‘Communication’ is further covered in lessons through teamwork-exercises e.g. partner work/group work as well as class-wide activities involving presentations and role plays. The final aspect of ‘Culture’ is covered when for example, the teaching is put into context of different countries and social norms e.g. answering calls politely.

Alec · July 1, 2019 at 9:20 am

The lessons followed the CLIL structure by typically beginning with a starter; usually some warm-up activity or video. Key vocabulary for the other subject was introduced to help reduce the language barrier and the cognitive load. As a result, students could then move onto tasks such as diagram labelling where they could engage with the subject and the language themselves. Towards the end of the lesson, there might be a combinatorial task such as singing a song before a summary of what was covered in the lesson. Ultimately the structure was successful in developing both conceptual and communication continuums.

Issy · July 1, 2019 at 5:44 pm

The lessons are generally structured in a fun way to engage the students and make the environment more casual to practice language. At the start of the lessons the new vocabulary is introduced in a structured way- with labels and with repetition to make the new vocabulary clear for students. The activities are very interactive and some are tactile- creating images from shapes, coloring and creating the egg protector. This reduces the cognitive load and allows students to relate words to objects and shapes from experience. This also allows them to use the new vocabulary in a creative way- about what they have made.

ciaran duncan · July 2, 2019 at 3:03 pm

The CLIL principle that language is used to learn as well as to communicate was put in practice in all these lessons.. The subject matter determined the language being taught- there were nature words for a class on landscape art and technical vocabulary for a class on circuit-building, for instance. The lessons tended to begin with an interactive starter which often used audio-visual components. Key vocabulary then was often established or (particularly in the case of the older students) consolidated. Subsequent combinational tasks and activities, such as memory games to test knowledge and filling in tables, were kept as interactive as possible and teacher talking time was minimised. This was a particular focus on things the students themselves could create: for instance, a drawing or something to protect an egg.

AhmedImam · July 3, 2019 at 11:41 pm

The lessons all start with an introduction into the topic and the subject that is being taught with the language not being a significant part of this initial ‘hook’ to draw the students in. This hook is often a video for the younger students but for the older students the hook seems to be the practical understanding the students will gain from understanding the new concepts. It performs the task of making students interested in the topic and then brings the idea of learning new language into the lesson. I actually thought that unlike what the slides were teaching there is an element of the knowledge cycle that goes on before the language cycle like how in the electricity lesson the students are confronted with the idea of electricity being a type of energy and various other facts. The language cycle of the lesson seems to be more facilitatory in how it’s used. From reading the notes I would have assumed there would be a separate segment of just looking at the language before going into the topic From what I can see they simply do short little activities to look at vocabulary and then continue to the larger over all activity that is based around the subject such as the usage of prepositions to design the egg protector. I think, especially for more advanced students, it may be better not to have such a separate language cycle and have little pauses in the knowledge cycle to look onto what the vocabulary has been used to explain in the lesson. Nevertheless, I think this works well in introducing new vocabulary and it’s practical usages. I don’t think the combinatorial tasks were not as distinct as I thought, instead they work by simply asking students to explain or present what they have been taught or simply discuss it between each other.

laiq.nagi · July 4, 2019 at 11:17 pm

The lessons followed a general (CLIL) structure with a starter as a sort of warm-up. Key vocabulary for the other subject was introduced to help reduce the cognitive load. This caffolding and foundation knowledge allowed the students to then compete slightly more difficult tasks such as labelling diagrams; it allowed them to more directly and freely engage with the new language. Towards the end of the lesson, there would be a more active creative tasks which allows the students to bring together all that they’ve learnt.

Francesca Smith · July 5, 2019 at 11:12 pm

Short introduction including the topic, key words and learning objectives.
Production: write an email, make a contraption to keep the egg from smash, fixing electrical equipment etc (using language for practical and/or subject specific purposes).
Independent work discussing ideas in native language – the lesson plan acts as scaffolding to support learning but is not so rigid that there is no opportunity for organic learning.
A variety of different activities throughout the lesson to keep students stimulated and to develop a variety of skills.
The younger students had more focus on ‘play’ activities where language could still be learnt, more mature students learnt in a more serious environment. The lesson was therefore appropriate for the age range of the students which is important to create a supportive yet challenging learning environment.
Teachers spoke clearly, slowly and repeated themselves where necessary, they also did not talk for too long to maximise student learning time.

dkatsanos · July 6, 2019 at 1:24 am

During the lesson, the teacher would usually start with an introduction of the topic and asking the students whether they were familiar with it. Then, the teacher would also introduce the first activity of the lesson. In younger classes, the activities would usually be more creative i.e. learning how to coat an egg so that it doesn’t break while falling whereas in older classes, more “serious” activities would take place such as constructing an electrical circuit in order to learn the different components of a circuit i.e. resistor, capacitor etc. This means that each lesson was adapted to the age and ability of students.
Furthermore, the teacher would usually go around the class while the activity was taking place and would offer advice which would help the students progress through the activity rather thank giving them a lecture. For instance, in some activities where the students were required to formulate sentences, the teacher would go around and correct any small grammatical mistakes. This way of teaching lets the students be creative which in turn is an engaging way of teaching and also helps them learn from their own mistakes which is usually the most effective way of learning.

keyasajip · July 6, 2019 at 7:27 pm

In all of the lessons the teachers were aware of the challenges of extra cognitive load and therefore started the lessons through introducing new and challenging vocabulary and having them down on the board for future reference. Vocabulary was also sub-classified and instead of the teacher simply writing a list, the students were involved in sticking post-it notes on the board. For the older students matching word games on the computer also allowed familiarisation with subject-specific vocabulary. All of the teachers spoke slowly and clearly and repeated the key vocabulary. Many pictures were also used, especially for the younger students, in order to aid learning.
Each lesson was tailored to the specific age group, with younger students having less content heavy subjects such as art whilst older students with a higher level of English learnt more complex subjects like Physics.
In all the lessons, teacher talking time was kept to a minimum and activities such as role-plays and group work took up majority of the lesson time.

mustafaazhar30 · July 7, 2019 at 3:10 am

The videos all started with a warmup which used visual aids to engage the students and help to lay groundwork for the topic. The vocabulary would be provided and as this is CLIL it would be very subject specific in nature for examples types of shapes for less advanced classes or science for more advanced classes. Then allow the students to showcase their learning, often grouping together to make a presentation, or a contraption etc to help make it engaging and memorable. We then go over and consolidate the final teachings from the class to ensure that the students took everything in

ld557 · July 7, 2019 at 5:23 pm

The CLIL lessons in the video started with engaging activities such as watching videos, discussions, or creating definitions, which served to introduce the topic in a more exciting way. The lessons were broken down into a variety of individual, group and class-based activities rather than taking the form of long lectures by the teacher. Students would learn key vocabulary related to the topic, whether it was simply shapes and colours for an art lesson, or more technical terms for mature students, providing a combination of both development of language and of knowledge. The lessons were not too content-heavy, however, and students often had a chance to practice new content and language through a variety of activities, such as describing different materials they were using throughout the egg activity, or practicing phrases out loud in the lesson on office language after they had already written them out once, giving students the opportunity to thoroughly study both language and content based information.

cbourne · July 8, 2019 at 6:14 pm

Starters were engaging, often using videos or music and presented in a visually appealing format. The teacher did not lecture the students but got them actively involved in learning through a range of games. These would often include pictures as well as words. Teachers spoke clearly and adjusted for students depending on their ages. Lesson structure seemed to follow that described on this course, including short starter activities as well as plenary assessment activities. Students were introduced to social norms regarding conversation in English, in addition to increasing their range of technical vocabulary.

Jenni.Visuri · July 9, 2019 at 12:35 pm

All of the lessons introduced the topic in a way that was engaging. Some of the lessons used a short video to introduce the topic, others started by brainstorming. The lessons then generally progressed by introducing some vocabulary. Some lessons used games to help learn the vocabulary. The vocab was then used to make sentences, for example by describing some artwork in the art class, or describing the materials and technique they used to protect the egg, or using the vocabulary for telephone calls by practising with a partner. The lessons were effective because they used a wide range of different small tasks which were engaging and fun such as drawing pictures, crossword puzzles, online activities and games.

Hayley Hilson · July 9, 2019 at 8:54 pm

The lessons begin with audio-visual stimulus to allow the students to engage with the new material and topic immediately. The vocab was introduced with a brief summary, and then the students engaged in games and activities to help learn the new vocabulary, usually done in groups to help the students engage with the new vocabulary and encourage participation. This starts with simpler activities such as matching images with vocabulary, and develops to more complex activities where they can use their knowledge of the content and their vocabulary such as writing presentations and researching material. The lesson concludes with consolidation, such as with a game or a song, where the children can reflect on what they’ve learnt. The lessons are designed to allow the students to develop their language skills whilst simultaneously learning new and relevant content.

philippakirby · July 10, 2019 at 9:47 am

The lessons started with an engaging introduction to the topic presented with real world materials such as a clip or article. The language learning element was reinforced through addressing key subject-specific vocabulary while there was also a focus on facilitating content through the use of flowcharts or diagrams, such as that of a circuit. After information was presented through discussion and worksheets this was then put into practice actively through activities such as role-play and pair work games which would help consolidate the material. For example after learning about formal language, students had to act out a mock conversation, while remaining relevant to the topic of office administration. Along with CLIL principles teacher input was kept at a minimum with the students giving presentations themselves. However there were still always teachers on hand to provide support such as the need for a preposition. The activities and subject matter was kept relevant and attainable to the age group at hand. The older groups dealt with complex theory based matters such as Domotics while younger students did more practical and creative experimentation. The lessons finished with cooler activities often in the form of a short quiz to consolidate and test the new knowledge.

gskaza · July 10, 2019 at 3:08 pm

All of the classes, regardless of the age of the students, begin with a starter to introduce the topic and end in a summary. In the class about electricity the children classify the vocabulary by placing colourful sticky notes in various sections on a spider diagram. This gets them up and out of their seats to collaborate on a piece of group work, which can be kept up as a display to remind them of their learning in future. As in the vocational college classes, this class on electricity also sees the children incorporating maths into the data collection portion of their learning, thus combining content and language with practical skills. The linking of the new vocabulary to the wider issue of overusage of electricity in a game at the end of the class is both enjoyable for the children and helps promote a lifestyle that is positive for the environment.
In the art class, the children draw hills to start, as seen in the starter video, although it would probably have been better if they had added labels to their drawings. From this, group art making is done, and the children test each other about colours in pairs after colouring in, and after singing a song to promote learning. When the children all attempt pointillism they put up their finished products in a group display.
In the class about eggs and the vocational college classes the emphasis on modification and improvement of work is seen more strongly. The children modify their egg saving designs and record how they have done this on worksheets, while the college students say aloud what components they are using in their circuits and employ problem solving skills to ensure their circuits are fully functioning. Quizzes, songs, and artwork are often the chosen activities to close the classes, going over what has been learnt.

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